What is Turkey's E‑Transformation?

While many governments and tax authorities are now on an e-Transformation journey, this trend began in Latin America in the early 2000s. Turkey followed suit a decade later when it began the digitization of its tax system.

Turkey is further along in its e-Transformation journey than most countries – including EU Member States, which are working towards digitization in their own way with the overarching VAT in the Digital Age initiative.

From e-invoicing to electronic self-employment receipts, Turkey now has a fully-fledged, established digital tax system with many moving parts. To understand Turkey’s e-Transformation, bookmark this page then read on.

At a glance: E-Transformation Turkey

E-Fatura Turkey

CTC Type
E-invoice clearance with both parties registered on the portal

Centralised – e-Fatura Portal delivers the e-invoices to Buyers for B2B transactions

UBL-TR format

eSignature Requirement
Required – fiscal stamp or qualified electronic signature

Archiving requirement
10 years

E-arşiv Fatura Turkey

CTC Type
E-invoice reporting (daily basis)

Decentralised – e-Fatura Portal does not deliver e-arşiv invoices; it’s the taxpayers’ responsibility

UBL-TR format or in a free format such as PDF and must also be available in paper form

eSignature Requirement
Required – fiscal stamp or qualified electronic signature

E-Transformation in Turkey

Turkey stepped up its tax system through digitization in 2012 to help important information be gathered and transmitted with ease and accuracy. It’s further ahead than many other countries, with a variety of electronic systems and documents mandated for many taxpayers – all starting with its e-Ledger obligation.

Turkey joined the eEurope+ initiative and moved fast to ensure it was keeping up with tax digitization efforts, relieving its entire economic ecosystem where information is concerned. The aims of such changes are to reduce VAT fraud, increase governmental access to and control of data, standardise financial and accounting processes and reduce errors.

Now effectively utilising electronic versions of invoices, ledgers, delivery notes, self-employed receipts and more, there are a lot of challenges for taxpayers to overcome to remain compliant amidst Turkey’s e-Transformation.

E-Transformation practices and applications

Turkey’s ambition to electronically transform its tax ecosystem required the development and implementation of many products and services. This presented taxpayers with new requirements and, subsequently, new challenges.

Here are the products and services in Turkey’s e-Transformation system:


e-Fatura is Turkey’s e-invoicing initiative. Mandated for companies with turnovers of over TRY 5 million, this obligation came into effect on 1 April 2014. There are also sector-based parameters for the nation’s e-invoicing mandate, ignoring the turnover threshold, qualifying the following for an electronic invoice obligation:

  • Companies licensed by the Turkish Energy Market Regulatory Authority
  • Middlemen or merchants trading fruits or vegetables
  • Online service providers facilitating online trade
  • Importers and dealers

Turkey’s e-invoicing initiative is a clearance model and two-way application, with issued invoices needing to be in the UBL-TR format and archived for 10 years. Sovos’ e-invoice solution enables compliance with e-Fatura requirements.

e-Arşiv Fatura

e-Arşiv Fatura is Turkey’s e-arşiv invoice initiative. Taxpayers registered in the e-Fatura system must also issue e-Arşiv invoices, either in the UBL-TR format or in a free format such as PDF.

Real-time clearance is not conducted for the issuance of these invoices, though an e-Arşiv report must be submitted electronically to the tax authority by the end of the following day. e-Arşiv invoices are always created electronically but must be available in paper form unless the buyer agrees to receive the document electronically.

The Sovos e-Arşiv Invoice solution makes e-archive invoice compliance simple.


e-İrsaliye is Turkey’s e-WayBill initiative. The use of e-İrsaliye documents became obligatory for taxpayers that surpass the TRY 10 million revenue threshold on 1 July 2023, though those outside of the scope can voluntarily switch to electronic WayBill documents.

There are two types of paper waybills, namely shipment and transportation. e-İrsaliye largely replaces the shipment waybill.

Information required in this type of e-document includes:

  • Supplier information
  • Issue date and document number
  • Buyer information
  • Type and quantity of the transported goods
  • Shipment date and time

Legally, there is no difference between paper waybills and eWayBills, though the electronic version requires both parties to be registered in the national system.


e-Defter is Turkey’s e-Ledger initiative. The Turkish tax authorities made the e-Ledger application mandatory for e-invoice users and taxpayers, subject to independent audit, in 2015.

These e-documents must be prepared in XBRL-GL format and include specific information in standard XML format – all signed with a financial seal. In addition to producing e-ledgers, taxpayers are required to create a ledger summary which is to be sent monthly to the TRA and archived for 10 years.

Electronic ledgers reduce the time it takes to collect data, save costs associated with the notarization process and ensure compliance with tax processes.


e-Mutabakat is Turkey’s e-Reconciliation initiative. Reconciliation is the communication between accounts to mutually agree on the debit and credit between companies that are part of an agreement.

Turkey’s tax authority has ruled that companies are obliged to make reconciliations at particular times. The last day of the year is typically the day when the account between two parties will be closed unless an agreement or legal requirement states otherwise.

The BA-BS web application developed by the TRA for e-Reconciliation enables taxpayers to compare current agreements and unbalanced agreements before electronic submission of the BA-BA forms.

e-Müstahsil Makbuzu

e-Müstahsil Makbuzu is Turkey’s e-Producer Receipt initiative. This commercial e-document is issued by farmers or wholesalers to keep a record of the products they buy from farmers that don’t bookkeep.

Taxpayers that are obliged to issue producer receipts have had to issue electronic versions of the document, known as e-Müstahsil Makbuzu, since 1 July 2020. However, fruit and vegetable brokers or merchants have been required to issue e-Producer Receipts since 1 January 2020.

Those obliged to utilise e-Producer Receipts may be outside of the scope of e-Fatura, e-Arşiv Fatura and e-Defter requirements.

e-Serbest Meslek

e-Serbest Meslek is Turkey’s e-Self-Employed Receipt (e-SMM) initiative. This obligation came into effect on 1 February 2020 and applies to all self-employed individuals, including:

  • Architects
  • Engineers
  • Financial advisors
  • Lawyers
  • Screenwriters, writers, composers and painters
  • Self-employed doctors, dentists and veterinarians

e-SMM receipts can be created, submitted and reported electronically and carry the same legal weight as paper Self-Employment Receipts. They must be archived for 10 years.

While all the above are prominent e-documents, there are even more electronic documents in Turkey that you should know about. To learn more, read our e-documents overview.

Who is affected by e-Transformation?

E-Transformation includes many documents, each subject to specific thresholds and criteria based on their type. Additionally, certain documents are mandatory for particular sectors without any threshold criteria. E-invoicing is now mandatory for the majority of taxpayers, but it is important to understand which documents are required to be submitted to the tax authorities.

The TRA continues to announce new taxpayer groups in scope of the different document types, so it’s important that businesses stay up to date with the latest information to ensure they remain compliant.

What are the benefits of e-Transformation?

Turkey’s tax transformation aimed to deliver benefits to both the government and taxpayers.

The e-Transformation initiative aims to produce the following benefits:

  • Real-time collection of financial data
  • Reduce VAT fraud and the circulation of fake invoices
  • Increased standardisation to automate accounting processes
  • Improved efficiency and reduction of manual errors through data auto-population

Tax compliance and e-Transformation

Turkey’s e-Transformation has impacted tax compliance, successfully implementing real-time transmission of important financial data.

With data automatically being populated in documents, it reduces the possibility of error via manual input and fraudulent invoices being submitted. The reduction of the VAT gap has been a driving force for many countries, including Turkey. 

Eliminating paper, cartridge, shipping and archiving costs associated with paper invoices is also an advantage to businesses and government.

With over 16 document regulations, Turkey’s e-transformation system requirements are extensive and complex. Understanding which regulations apply and keeping up with the latest tax compliance guidelines is key.

How Sovos can help with your e-Transformation journey

Sovos provided the first global e-Transformation solution suite, helping businesses of all shapes and sizes to meet the demands of Turkish tax mandates. Our platform meets all the requirements, standards and formats defined by the Turkish Revenue Authority.

Organisations choose Sovos as their global compliance partner, partly due to the convenience of having a single vendor to aid compliance wherever and however they do business.

E-Transformation FAQ

E-defter is not mandatory for voluntary e-fatura use.

A special integrator is an intermediary service provider authorised by the Turkish Revenue Administration. Special integrators have the authority to create electronic records on behalf of taxpayers.

Related resources to e‑Transformation

Navigate Turkey’s evolving tax landscape

As an early adopter of the ‘clearance model’, Turkey positions itself as one of the leading countries in the world when it comes to tax digitisation.
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