African countries are following e-invoicing and continuous transaction control trends implemented rapidly by many countries around the globe.
Each country in the continent is developing their variation of a tax digitization system. This means there is currently no standardisation with compliance requirements differing in each jurisdiction.
A common transaction reporting feature among African countries is the use of electronic or virtual fiscal devices. Electronic fiscal devices are cash registers with software and direct communication to the tax authority. Virtual fiscal devices serve the same purpose but without the hardware component.
However, reporting transactions is one of many fiscal digitization processes applied by African countries. E-invoicing is on the agenda for several authorities, including Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In this blog we explain the key features of these systems.
Taxpayers report their transactions electronically to the tax authority through the Automated Tax Administration System (ATAS), established for electronic VAT compliance purposes.
In addition to this e-reporting function, as of February 2022, all import and export operations need an authenticated e-invoice issued according to the format specified by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN).
The CBN has introduced the Cross-Border e-Invoicing program, where suppliers and buyers operating in imports and exports register on the dedicated electronic platform. There are exemptions to obligatory e-invoices based on operations and taxpayers, such as the transaction value within the invoice.
Businesses subject to VAT must report their e-invoices to the Tax Invoice Management System (TIMS), which requires taxpayers to install, and use approved electronic tax register machines. These tax register machines connect to the tax authority’s online system. There is a mandatory format for submitting e-invoices to the tax authority.
Regarding the full implementation, the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA) announced additional time to comply with the TIMS after the grace period, and taxpayers are expected to be fully prepared by the end of November 2022.
The Electronic Fiscal Receipting and Invoicing System (EFRIS) covers invoices and receipts of B2B, B2G and B2C transactions. Taxpayers must send e-invoices to EFRIS through electronic fiscal devices or via an API connection between the taxpayer and EFRIS. When initiating a transaction, transaction details are transmitted in real time to EFRIS to generate an e-receipt or e-invoice.
Given the growth in jurisdictions applying mandatory e-invoicing and e-reporting and the common agenda set by African Union that also refers to tax control and traceability, we can expect more African countries to introduce similar e-invoicing systems in the near future. The countries that follow will likely learn from the pioneers, leading to a more uniform development of tax digitization in Africa.
Ask our tax experts about e-invoicing compliance in African countries. Simply get in touch.
On 19 May 2022, the Danish Parliament passed a new bookkeeping law – Lov om bogføring – introducing requirements for companies to use a digital bookkeeping system.
Section 16 of the Law requires many Danish companies to use a digital bookkeeping system and make their bookings electronically. The final deadline is yet to be announced but is expected to be July 2024, with the Danish Business Authority announcing they will give businesses enough time to comply with the e-bookkeeping requirements.
The subjective scope of the digital bookkeeping requirements covers all companies in Denmark that are liable for accounting according to section 3(1) of the Financial Statements Act. Moreover, other companies whose net turnover exceeds DKK 300,000 in two consecutive income years are subject to digital bookkeeping requirements. Finally, the rules cover bookkeepers and others who carry out bookkeeping for other companies.
These companies will be required to record company transactions and store records in a digital bookkeeping system. Companies can use a digital bookkeeping system registered with the Danish Business Authority, Erhvervsstyrelsen, or any other bookkeeping system. However, companies who choose the latter option must ensure their systems meet the requirements according to Law for digital bookkeeping systems.
While the new bookkeeping law doesn’t introduce any mandatory e-invoicing or continuous transaction controls (CTC) obligations for businesses, it is envisaged that the digital bookkeeping systems must support continuous registration of the company’s transactions and the automation of administrative processes. This includes automatic transmission and receipt of e-invoices.
This requirement was further detailed in the draft executive order on requirements for standard digital bookkeeping systems, which outlines that the taxpayers:
Moreover, the new bookkeeping law authorised the Minister for Industry, Business, and Financial Affairs to introduce rules:
(a) that require companies to record their transactions regarding purchases and sales with e-invoices as documentation of the transactions,
(b) on transmission of records by digital bookkeeping systems to a public receiving point through the shared public digital infrastructure for the exchange of e-documents and the storage of such records.
Although Denmark’s e-invoicing journey is still in the early phases, it seems that the new bookkeeping law and requirements for digital bookkeeping systems lay the foundation for a future e-invoicing mandate to be duly introduced by the Minister for Industry, Business, and Financial Affairs.
It will be interesting to see how and when Denmark’s plans for e-invoicing will take shape and be affected by the upcoming results from the EU Commission on the VAT in the Digital Age project.
If you have any question about Denmark’s new bookkeeping law or e-invoicing requirements in Denmark, please reach out to us: Speak to our tax experts.
It’s a good year to be an IT leader. After far too many years of the phrase “do more with less” being the mantra of most organizations when it came to technology spending, things are finally looking up.
According to research firm Gartner, IT spending will reach an estimated $4.5 trillion in 2022. This represents a 5.1% increase over 2021 and is a much-needed boost for businesses in need of technology updates that may have been placed on the backburner due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
IT departments are also eager to switch focus from just keeping things afloat to more long-term projects that will strategically and successfully support the future of work. This assertion is backed by numbers provided by IT management solutions firm Flexera in its State of Tech Spend Report.
When asked where budgets were being allocated to this year, 54% of those surveyed expected increased investment and resources to be applied to technology that makes it easier and more seamless for employees to work from home. Another 42% of those surveyed stated a newfound willingness to move to the cloud to support the realities of a post-pandemic world. Participants in this survey were all executives and high-level managers in IT with significant knowledge of their organizations’ overall IT budgets, weighed in on what to expect in the year to come.
These findings show the level of importance businesses are putting on hybrid and flexible work environments. The likelihood that working from home, at least in some capacity, is here to stay has IT departments rethinking their strategies to be prepared to tackle any challenges that may arise.
The strategies being outlined by IT departments are sound and inline with the world in which we now exist. However, there is another post-pandemic force at work with the potential to derail the best laid plans and devour a vast amount of budget and resources. Government mandated e-invoicing.
If you work as an IT leader at a multinational company, you likely fall into one of the two following categories. One, you’ve been brought into deal with the new realities of real-time oversight and enforcement from regulatory authorities. Or two, you are about to be brought into the fray with your own internal mandate, solve this problem for good.
Why am I so definitive in this declaration? Because I work with some of the biggest brands on the planet and I am witnessing firsthand the impacts these mandates are having on their IT organization.
When it comes to IT projects, most are not reactionary but the result of careful and methodical planning over a long period of time. However, the government is changing the rules here. No longer are projects and upgrades on your timeline. When they implement new laws and mandates it’s either you move quickly to address the issue and make it right or you pay the consequences which can range from hefty fines to even losing your license to operate.
As government mandated e-invoicing laws quickly ramp up around the world, they represent a credible threat to your IT budgets. IT departments must be prepared for the new realities that accompany government mandated e-invoicing. With authorities now in the data stack of your businesses examining transactions in real-time as they traverse your network, you will need a solution that enables you to deliver the information in the format required in real-time.
Bottom line, compliance is no longer a tax issue. IT leaders and other senior leadership must work together to align business functions across the board. IT needs to ensure the resources and tools are in place to meet government mandated obligations, no matter the company’s industry or location.
A failure to address the problem early will only lead to more complex and costly problems down the road that will absorb critical budgets and resources earmarked for other priority projects.
If you aren’t sure where to start in building your strategy, reach out to our experts.
France is implementing a decentralised continuous transaction control (CTC) system where domestic B2B e-invoicing constitutes the foundation of the system, adding e-reporting requirements for data relating to B2C and cross-border B2B transactions (sales and purchases).
Under this upcoming regime, data or invoices can be directly sent to the Invoicing Public Portal ‘PPF’ (Portail Public de Facturation, so far known as Chorus Pro) or to a Partner Dematerialization Platform ‘PDP’ (Plateformes de Dématerialisation Partenaires). In addition, there are also Dematerializing Operators (Operateurs de dématérialisation) that are connected to either the PPF or a PDP.
Requirements for these portal and platforms have been published.
The Ministry of Economy published Decree No. 2022-1299 and Order of 7 October 2022 on the generalisation of e-invoicing in transactions between taxable persons for VAT and the transmission of transaction data (together known as ‘new legislation’), providing long-awaited details for PDP operators and PPF.
The new legislation introduces rules concerning the application process for PDP operators. Although French establishment isn’t required, PDP operators must fulfill a number of requirements, such as operating their IT systems in the EU.
France is implementing a model where third-party service providers are authorised to transmit invoices between the transacting parties. With the mandatory use of the PPF or PDPs for exchanging e-invoices, trading parties cannot exchange invoices between them directly. Therefore, PDPs must be able to receive and send invoices in structured formats, whether the ones supported by the PPF (CII, UBL, or FACTUR-X) or any other required by their clients. Also, to ensure interoperability, PDPs are expected to connect with at least one other PDP. Besides this requirement, it’s stated by the new decree that PDPs must be able to send e-invoices to PDPs chosen by their recipients which implies a complete interoperability between PDPs.
It was previously announced that taxpayers could submit PDF invoices for a transitional period. The new legislation outlines the transitional period as until the end of 2027. During this period PDPs and PPF must be able to convert the PDF into one of the structured formats.
The new legislation also provides information about the content of e-invoices, which has new mandatory fields, and the content of transaction and payment data to be transmitted to the tax authority.
It also announced frequencies and dates of data transmission. Deadlines for transaction and payment data transmission are based on the tax regimes of taxpayers. For example, taxpayers subject to the normal monthly regime should transmit payment data within ten days after the end of the month.
With the aim of having traceability over documents, the lifecycle statuses of the domestic B2B e-invoices are exchanged between the parties and transmitted to the PPF. Lifecycle statuses that are mandatory (“Deposited”, “Rejected”, “Refused” and “Payment Received”) are listed in the new legislation.
Further details regarding the Central Directory, which consists of data to properly identify the recipient of the e-invoice and its platform, are provided within the Order.
PDP operator candidates can apply for registration as of Spring 2023 (precise date still to be confirmed), instead of September 2023 as previously set. From January 2024, a six-month test run is expected to be conducted for enterprises and PDPs before the implementation in July 2024.
Still have questions about France’s upcoming continuous transaction control mandate? Get in touch with our tax experts.
Brazil is known for its highly complex continuous transaction controls (CTC) e-invoicing system. As well as keeping up with daily legislative changes in its 26 states and the Federal District, the country has over 5,000 municipalities with different standards for e-invoicing.
The tax levied on consumption of services (ISSQN – Imposto Sobre Serviços de Qualquer Natureza) lies under the competence of the municipalities. Each municipality has authority over the format and technical standard of the services e-invoice (NFS-e – nota fiscal de serviço eletrônica). This poses a significant compliance challenge, as e-invoicing is mandatory for nearly all taxpayers in the country.
However, important steps have been taken towards changing this scenario. An agreement (Convênio NFS-e) recently signed by the Brazilian Federal Revenue Agency (RFB), the National Confederation of Municipalities (CNM), and other relevant entities, has established the National System of the NFS-e with a countrywide unified standard for the services e-invoice.
The SNNFS-e introduces a unified standard layout for the issuance of the NFS-e, as well as a national repository of all e-documents generated within the system. Adhesion to the system is voluntary for municipalities. Since the bill proposed to regulate this issue (PLP 521/2018) has been static in Congress since 2019, the agreement was designed to allow municipalities to voluntarily adopt the national standard, which then becomes mandatory for taxpayers.
The system will allow issuance of the NFS-e in a national standard, through the web portal, mobile app or API (application programming interface). It also creates the National Data Environment (ADN), the NFS-e unified repository.
The SNNFS-e offers several service modules and municipalities can choose which ones to adopt. The ADN is the only mandatory module, as it ensures the integrity and availability of information contained in the documents issued is in the unified standard. Additionally, the ADN allows adhering municipalities to distribute issued NFS-e among themselves and taxpayers.
Once the agreement is signed, the municipality must activate the system within a certain deadline, which hasn’t been established. Activation involves configuring system parameters and amending municipal legislation to reflect the national system requirements. Only after complete activation will taxpayers be able to issue invoices based on the unified standard.
Technical documentation of the NFS-e has also been released, but these are not the definitive specifications, which are still to be approved by the National Standard Electronic Service Invoice Management Committee (CGNFS).
The NFS-e national standard provides substantial simplification of taxpayers’ e-invoicing obligations. With a standard layout, compliance with multiple formats can be drastically reduced. The document format for issuance of the standard NFS-e is XML and it must be digitally signed.
Another benefit is that one of the available modules allows taxpayers to pay the ISSQN owed in several municipalities at once, using one single document (Guia Única de Recolhimento) issued by the system.
Although municipalities may choose to keep their current NFS-e issuance system, they must still adhere to the communication deadlines, layout, and security standards of the national NFS-e. They must also ensure transmission of all issued documents to the national data environment. This ensures that taxpayers will only be required to issue the NFS-e in one standard layout.
The first phase of production started on 23 July 2022 with five pilot municipalities. Transmission will be available through different methods, with gradual implementation. According to the initial implementation schedule of the National Confederation of Municipalities, API transmission is set to happen from mid-October 2022 or later, depending on the stability of the other transmission methods. Further development of this schedule can be expected in the coming months.
São Paulo, Salvador, and Florianópolis are among the many municipalities that have already signed the agreement. The success of this national NFS-e standard relies on significant adoption by municipalities, so taxpayers must ready themselves to comply as this takes place across the country.
Need to ensure compliance with the latest e-invoicing requirements? Get in touch with our tax experts.
The Congress of Spain has approved the Law for the Creation and Growth of Companies, and it is expected to be published in the Official Gazette (BOE) in the following days.
This Law also amends Law 56/2007 on Measures to Promote Information to adopt the mandatory electronic invoice issuance requirement for all entrepreneurs and professionals in their commercial relationships.
According to this Law, all entrepreneurs and professionals must issue, send, and receive electronic invoices in their business relationships with other entrepreneurs and professionals. Additionally, the recipient and the sender of electronic invoices must provide information on the status of the invoices.
The main rules of the Law related to e-invoicing establishes that:
The process for accreditation of interconnection and interoperability of the platforms will be determined by the regulations at a later stage.
The law establishes that companies providing the supply of certain services to final consumers must issue and send electronic invoices in their relations with individuals who agree to receive them or who have explicitly requested them. This obligation affects companies supplying telecommunication services, financial services, water, gas, and electricity services among other sectors and activities prescribed in Article 2.2 of Law 56/2007.
These companies must provide access to the necessary programs so that users can read, copy, download and print the electronic invoice for free without having to go to other sources to obtain the necessary applications. They must also enable simple and free procedures so users can revoke the consent given to the receipt of electronic invoices at any time.
Companies within scope that refrain from offering users the possibility to receive electronic invoices will be sanctioned with a warning or a fine of up to 10,000 euros.
The Government will develop provisions of this Law in accordance with the regulations, and within the scope of its powers. Therefore, the Ministries of Economic Affairs and Digital Transformation and of Finance and Public Administration will determine the information and technical requirements to be included in the electronic invoice to verify the payment dates and obtain the payment periods.
It is also necessary to establish the minimum interoperability requirements between the providers of electronic invoice technology solutions, and the security, control, and standardisation requirements of the devices and computer systems that generate the documents.
The Government will have 6 months from the publication of this Law in the Official Gazette to approve the regulatory framework.
The provisions regarding mandatory B2B electronic invoicing will be effective according to their annual turnover:
This means that the B2B e-invoicing obligation could be effective for large taxable persons by the first quarter of 2024.
It is important to highlight that the entry into force of the B2B e-invoicing obligation is subject to obtaining the community exception to articles 218 and 232 of the VAT Directive. This exception is less difficult to obtain the previously as has been granted to other Member States such as Italy, France, and Poland to allow them to adopt the mandatory e-invoicing regime in their jurisdictions.
Need to ensure compliance with the latest e-invoicing requirements in Spain? Get in touch with our tax experts
Many countries have recently started their continuous transaction controls (CTC) journey by introducing mandatory e-invoicing or e-reporting systems. We see more of this trend in the European Union as the recent reports on the VAT in the Digital Age Initiative discuss that the best policy choice would be to introduce an EU-wide CTC e-invoicing system covering both intra-EU and domestic transactions.
However, the efforts to fight tax fraud aren’t limited to mandatory e-invoicing or e-reporting systems. Many governments prefer to look beyond and introduce another tool that gives them greater insight into their economy: e-transport documents. When introducing e-transport systems, we see that one country differs from other EU Member States with the early adoption of an e-transport system – Hungary.
The Electronic Public Road Transportation Control System or Elektronikus Közúti Áruforgalom Ellenőrző Rendszer (EKAER) has been in place in Hungary since 2015. Operated by the Hungarian tax authority, the EKAER is intended to monitor compliance with tax obligations arising from the transportation of goods on public roads in the national territory.
The system was initially introduced to monitor the movement of all goods in the national territory. However, after several letters from the EU Commission asking Hungary to bring their system in line with the EU regulations, the scope of the system was narrowed down to the so-called risky products in January 2021. The risky products are defined in 51/2014. (XII. 31.) NGM decree, which consists of foodstuffs or other risky products (such as flowers, all kinds of natural sands, different types of minerals, etc.).
According to 13/2020. (XII. 23.) decree on the operation of the Electronic Road Traffic Control System, Hungarian taxpayers are required to report specific data regarding the transport of risky products by using the EKAER system before the transportation of goods begins. It’s also important to mention that it’s necessary to be registered in the EKAER system and provide a risk guarantee for certain types of transport unless there is an exemption in the law.
Taxpayers are obliged to report the transport of risky goods in XML format to the EKAER system. This information includes data regarding the sender, the recipient, and the goods. Moreover, businesses must also report additional specified data to the tax authority based on the transport type (domestic, intra-community acquisitions and intra-community supplies).
Following the report by the taxpayer, the EKAER system generates an EKAER number, an identification number assigned to a product unit. This number will be valid for 15 days; therefore, the delivery of goods must be performed within this period. Businesses must communicate the EKAER number to the carrier, and it should accompany transported goods.
Although no future changes are foreseen for the EKAER system, different countries worldwide continue to introduce e-transport requirements similar to the EKAER system. Taxpayers must ensure that their transport processes are flexible and compatible with changes that the tax authorities are introducing to stay compliant.
For the UK and other non-EU businesses it’s vital to determine the importer of the goods into the EU as this will impact the VAT treatment.
For goods under €150 there are simplified options such as the Import One Stop Shop (IOSS) or special arrangements through the postal operator. However, when supplying goods over €150, businesses need to consider how they want to import the goods.
One option is for businesses to deliver on a Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) basis and be the importer of the goods into the EU. This improves the customer experience for B2C transactions but creates a liability to be registered in the county of import and to charge local VAT, along with additional compliance requirements. If goods are moved from that country to other EU countries, then depending on the supply chain, the One Stop Shop (OSS) could be used to avoid further VAT registration requirements.
Due to increased compliance costs many businesses have chosen not to be the importer and pass this obligation to the end customer. If a business chooses this route, options are still available.
The business could simply place the full obligation on the customer., The customer would be sent a payment request for the VAT and any duty by the carrier before delivery., There could also be a handling fee passed on to the customer. Once paid the goods would be delivered This approach doesn’t provide the best customer experience.
This is why many businesses have opted for a ’landed cost method’ offered by many couriers. The customer is still the importer on the import documentation, but the business collects the VAT and duty from the customer at the time of sale and settles the carrier’s invoice on their behalf. In theory, this avoids the need for the business to register in the EU and still offers the customer a seamless experience. However, this raises the question: is the customer actually the importer?
Some tax authorities are beginning to take a different view of arrangements for goods with a value above €150 where goods are imported directly into the Member State of delivery. A law change on 1 July 2021 included the concept “where the supplier intervenes indirectly in the transport or dispatch of the goods”. This is to counter arrangements that allowed the seller to argue they were not distance selling but making a local sale, so only had to account for VAT in the Member State of dispatch of the goods.
Following the law change some tax authorities are arguing this concept means if a seller sells to a private individual in their country and the seller arranges for the goods to be delivered from a non-EU country and customs cleared in their EU Member State, the place of supply is the Member State as the supplier has indirectly intervened in the transport.
As a result, the supplier must register and account for VAT in the Member State even if the customer is the importer of the goods. This argument could result in double taxation and can create additional compliance obligations along with tax authority audits – all of which add additional costs and time for businesses.
It’s important that businesses adopting a method where the customer is the importer put correct arrangements in place. This includes ensuring website terms and conditions reflect the fact the customer is the importer and giving the company the power to appoint a customs declarant on their behalf. It’s also important that customs documentation is completed correctly. Avoiding terms such as DDP on the website is also key as this implies that the business is the importer.
For help with EU import queries or if your company needs VAT compliance assistance get in touch to speak with one of our tax experts.
The Colombian tax authority (DIAN) continues to invest in the expansion of its CTC (continuous transaction controls) system. The latest update proposes an expansion of the scope of documents covered by the e-invoicing mandate.
In this article we’ll address the newly published Draft Resolution 000000 of 19-08-2022. This advances important changes for taxpayers covered by mandatory e-invoicing rules.
These draft changes include a new obligation to issue equivalent documents (documentos equivalentes) in electronic format, a schedule for its implementation, updated technical documentation and other significant developments, all of which require taxpayers to ready themselves to comply.
Amongst many proposed changes, the draft resolution’s main purpose is to regulate the electronic issuance of the equivalent document.
These documents correspond to the sales invoice under Colombian law, but cover specific types of transactions and are regulated in the draft resolution, as follows:
This means that all taxpayers subject to the Colombian e-invoicing mandate who issue one of these equivalent documents will be required to do so in an electronic format, according to the Technical Annex of the Electronic Equivalent Document version 1.0 (Anexo técnico del Documento Equivalente Electrónico), introduced by the draft.
Additionally, the draft provides an initial regulation of the electronic documents of the invoicing system (documentos electrónicos del sistema de facturación). These are documents that aid control by the tax and customs authority, to support tax or customs declarations and/or to support the procedures carried out before DIAN, under the provisions of subsection 1 of article 616-1 of the Tax Statute.
Finally, the technical specifications of the system’s main electronic invoice, the sales e-invoice, is updated to version 1.9 (Anexo técnico de la Factura Electrónica de Venta version 1.9).
The obligation to issue the equivalent document in electronic format will be implemented gradually, according to the type of equivalent document. It starts on 1 March 2023 and will cover all equivalent documents on 1 July 2023.
Early voluntary implementation will also be possible, once the functionality is available in DIAN’s system. Until the deadlines for the electronic implementation of the equivalent document are fulfilled, these must continue to be issued in accordance with Resolution No. 000042 of 2020.
The draft also sets a schedule for implementation of the electronic documents of the invoicing system, during the taxable years of 2023 and 2024. These documents will be further regulated in the six months following the validity of the official resolution, as well as the adoption of its technical annex, which hasn’t been presented with the draft resolution.
Lastly, the proposal establishes the deadline for implementation of the Technical Annex of the electronic sales invoice version 1.9 by taxpayers. This will be at least three months following its official publication.
The draft resolution, once officially published, will derogate DIAN Resolution No. 000042 of 2020 in all provisions that are contrary to it, except those related to equivalent documents, which will remain in force until the DIAN establishes their electronic implementation.
Taxpayers can also expect new legislation regulating the remaining electronic documents of the invoicing system, in the months following the official publication of this draft resolution.
Until then, companies should prepare for the significant upcoming changes and adjust their businesses processes to comply with the new Colombian mandate.
Need help with evolving e-invoicing requirements in Colombia? Get in touch with our tax experts about how Sovos can help your business meet your VAT compliance obligations.
The Colombian tax authority (DIAN) has concentrated heavily on expanding its electronic invoicing regime over recent years. The DIAN introduced the first schedule for mandatory implementation of e-invoicing in the country in 2018, and, since then, the system has gradually encompassed more transactions and taxpayers.
In this article, we’ll look at the two latest new mandates in Colombian e-invoicing:
These new obligations have significant impact and require adjustments by taxpayers. These changes also represent a substantial expansion of Colombia’s e-invoicing to include entirely new transactions under its scope.
The Colombian tax authority has created a new e-document type, the support document for acquisitions from subjects not obliged to issue e-invoices. This support document and its corrective notes were introduced by Resolution 167 of 2021. It expands the e-invoicing scope to ensure more transactions fall within the mandate and allows support for tax deductions.
Taxpayers obliged to generate this e-document are those under the country’s e-invoicing regime. It includes those subject to income and complementary tax payments and responsible for VAT when purchasing goods and/or services from suppliers not obliged to issue e-invoices or equivalent documents and require support for costs and deductions in the mentioned tax declarations. To generate the support document, the taxpayer must be authorised by the DIAN as an electronic issuer.
The support document and its corrective notes must be generated in XML format and contain a CUDS: unique support document code (código único del documento soporte). This alphanumeric code allows it to be unequivocally identified. After generation, the e-documents must be transmitted for clearance by the DIAN either in real-time or, at the latest, on the last calendar day of the week, for accumulated operations with the same supplier carried out during that same week.
Having been postponed from its original implementation date, the generation of the acquisitions support document became mandatory on 1 August 2022.
According to this mandate, cash register tickets generated through POS systems (tickets de máquinas registradoras con sistemas P.O.S.) may be issued by subjects obliged to invoice, provided that the sale of the good and/or the provision of the service recorded therein doesn’t exceed five (5) UVT (tax value unit) for each document, excluding taxes.
This means that, for operations covering sales of goods and/or provision of services exceeding the amount of five (5) UVT, taxpayers under the country’s e-invoicing mandate must issue an electronic sales invoice. The purchaser of goods and/or services below the threshold may still require the issuance of a sales invoice, in which case the supplier must provide it.
The threshold was de facto introduced in 2021 by Law 2155, but it was only in July 2022 that the DIAN established a phased roll-out of the mandate, through Resolution 1092, following the calendar below:
While the generation of the support document for acquisitions is already required, taxpayers must start preparing to comply with the new threshold for e-invoice issuance in place of POS tickets. Sovos can help your company adjust to e-invoicing and ensure compliance with Colombia’s new mandates.
Contact our team of experts today to ensure your company is complying with Colombia’s e-invoicing mandates.
The European Commission (EC)’s action plan for fair and simple taxation – ’VAT in the Digital Age’- continues to progress. After a public consultation process, the EC has published Final Reports discussing the best options for the European market to fight tax fraud and benefit businesses with the use of technology.
The areas covered are:
The EC is expected to propose legislative amendments in the VAT Directive this autumn.
The report focusing on VAT reporting and e-invoicing evaluates ‘Digital Reporting Requirements (DRR)’. This is any obligation for VAT taxable persons to periodically or continuously submit transaction data digitally to the tax authority, e.g. by use of SAF-T, VAT listing, real-time reporting or e-invoicing.
According to the report, the best policy choice would be the introduction of a DRR in the form of an EU-wide continuous transaction controls (CTC) e-invoicing system covering both intra-EU and domestic transactions. Member States with an existing e-invoicing system would be able to keep this in the short term via a standstill clause, provided they ensure interoperability with the new EU system. However, in the medium term of five to ten years, national e-invoicing systems would be required to converge to the EU system.
The report clearly favours the policy option of a full EU harmonisation through a CTC e-invoicing system, meaning the invoice will be submitted to the authorities before or after issuance. The harmonisation focus seems to be primarily on form, with a suggestion of an EU-wide common protocol and format. Whereas important decisions regarding architecture risk being left to the Member States include whether the system will be clearance or simply reporting, whether to leverage an existing domestic B2G platform and the periodicity of the reporting etc. The only requirement on Member States seems to be accepting issued and transmitted e-invoices based on a common protocol and format.
The report suggests aligning the scope of requirements and excluding non-registered taxable persons and those covered by the SME VAT scheme. In the short term, only B2B and B2G transactions are covered, with B2C transactions remaining out of scope.
Finally, the report suggests that to ease the burden on businesses Member States must consider a number of measures such as jointly removing other reporting obligations, providing pre-filled VAT returns, supporting the investment in business automation (especially for SMEs) and providing public support to the adoption of the IT compliance systems
How this will be jointly coordinated isn’t discussed but it doesn’t sound like the EC expects such measures to be harmonised by the EU.
Although the report concludes implementing an EU-wide mandatory e-invoicing system is the best and most future-proof measure, how to design an effective e-invoicing system is not explained in the report and doesn’t seem to be in scope for harmonisation.
However, the design of the e-invoicing system may have an important impact on fiscal and economic results. As the independent expert report ʻNext Generation Model Decentralized CTC and Exchange’ (supported by EESPA, openPEPPOL and other key stakeholder groups) describes, the greatest benefits can only be realised when an e-invoicing system allows businesses to automate other processes as well as invoicing.
It’s a welcome start that the Commission is aiming for an EU-wide CTC e-invoicing scheme. It remains to be seen how effective this harmonisation will be. When Europe’s politicians return from this year’s summer break, we’ll start to gain more insight into the overall feasibility of the Commission’s views.
As a vendor that has implemented CTC and VAT compliance solutions around the world for several decades now, our desire would be for the debate to go beyond interoperability on a data level, so that Europe can take bold steps towards a future that preserves supply chain automation and technological innovation.
The Italian Customs Authorities recently updated their national import system by applying the new European Union Customs Data Model (EUCDM). These new changes came into effect on 9 June 2022.
According to the new procedure, the old model of paper import declarations has been abolished. The import declarations are now transmitted to the Italian Customs Authorities’ information system with a digital signature.
The acceptance of a customs declaration is notified to the economic operator (that can be the importer, the Customs Agent, etc.) through a Master Reference Number (MRN), an alphanumeric string of 18 characters.
The old IM message (telematic track to be submitted at the time of the import to the Italian Customs Authorities through the Customs Telematic Service (i.e. Servizio telematico doganale (STD)) has been replaced by the following paths as defined by EU legislation:
At the time of the release of the goods, Italian Customs Authorities make available the "summary statement for accounting purposes of the customs declaration" (prospetto di riepilogo ai fini contabili della dichiarazione doganale). The summary includes all data necessary to detect customs duties, import VAT and any other charges due.
The summary mentioned above is made available to the importer and the declarant/representative in the reserved area of the single portal of Italian Customs Authorities through the "Document management – customs declarations" service.
We recommend that importers contact their Customs Agent to receive a copy of this summary for their accounting purposes.
As per Italian VAT Law, possessing a Single Administrative Document (SAD) is needed to exercise the right to recover import VAT in Italy. As the SAD is now unavailable, Italian Customs Authorities, in agreement with the Italian Revenue Agency, agreed that the new accounting summary is sufficient to allow the importer to exercise the right to recover the import VAT.
Therefore, the new accounting summary is needed to exercise your right to recover the import VAT paid to the Italian tax authorities.
Moreover, the right to recover import VAT is exercised only once the summary is reported in the Purchase VAT Ledger as per art. 25 of Italian VAT Law.
Finally, the import document must be included in your quarterly VAT return and your annual VAT return which must mirror your Italian VAT Ledgers.
To ensure your import VAT is not lost, we recommend considering that the last day to recover the import VAT, related to an import of goods carried out in 2022, is 30 April 2023.
In addition to the Summary Prospetto di riepilogo ai fini contabili della dichiarazione doganale, discussed above, economic operators will be able to receive:
Italian Customs Authorities advise customs operators to provide the Prospetto di svincolo to transporters as proof of the fulfilment of customs formalities in the case of checks.
Speak to our team if you have any questions about the latest Italian importing requirements and their impact on your business’s compliance.
In India, the e-invoicing system has been live since 2020. Taxpayers in the scope of e-invoicing mandate must issue their invoices relating to B2B and B2G transactions through the e-invoicing system, which is a form of continuous transaction controls (CTC).
However, B2C invoices are not issued through the CTC system, which means that B2C invoices don’t pass through the Invoice Registry Portal’s (IRP) clearance. The Indian authorities have announced their goal to include B2C invoices in the scope of the CTC system although there is no timeline provided for that plan.
Meanwhile, there is a separate QR code requirement for B2C invoices. We explain why and when a QR code is required and how taxpayers can generate it:
The QR code requirement for B2C invoices aims to promote digital payments. In that respect, it differs from the QR code for B2B and B2G invoices which include the IRP’s signature. The latter serves as proof of clearance that B2B and B2G invoices must go through. Additionally, the QR code for B2C invoices must be self-generated, whereas the IRP generates the QR code content for B2B and B2G invoices (if the supplier is in the scope of e-invoicing).
The QR code requirement doesn’t apply to all suppliers. As per the CBIC notification, F. No. CBEC-20/16/38/2020-GST, suppliers with annual revenue of 500 Cr. Rupees or more (from 2017-2018) must comply with the QR code requirement when issuing invoices to their end customers (B2C).
The QR code must be dynamic. Unlike static QR codes, the system will update the content of the dynamic QR code if the payment is received. Content-wise, businesses must include the following information:
After printing the QR code on the invoice, customers must be able to scan it to make payments. If the supply is made through an e-commerce platform, suppliers must give cross-references of the payment received in respect of the said supply on the invoice. Then the invoice would be deemed to have complied with the requirements of the Dynamic QR Code.
The Indian authorities are making significant progress with their efforts to digitize paper processes in the country by introducing a CTC invoicing system and encouraging digital payments. In line with their ambitions, we expect further digitization developments in the near future.
Need to ensure compliance with the latest e-invoicing requirements in India? Get in touch with Sovos’ tax experts.
As previously predicted by Sovos, the threshold for implementing mandatory e-invoicing has been lowered by the Indian authorities. According to the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs Notification No. 17/2022 – Central Tax, from 1 October 2022 compliance with the e-invoicing rules will be mandatory for taxpayers with an annual threshold of 10 Cr. rupees (approximately 1.270.000 USD) or more.
The Indian e-invoicing system falls under the category of continuous transaction controls (CTCs) under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) framework. The legal validity of the invoice is conditional based on the Invoice Registration Portal (IRP) digitally signing the invoice and providing an Invoice Registration Number (IRN). If the IRN is not included in an invoice, the invoice will not be legally valid.
The scope covers both domestic and cross-border transactions. The IRP clearance process is mandatory for B2B, B2G and export transactions. So, taxpayers in scope must issue their invoices (as well as other documents that need an IRN) according to the new system for all B2B, B2G or export transactions.
Taxpayers in scope of e-invoicing must generate e-waybills through the e-invoicing system. It is not possible to voluntarily adhere to the e-invoicing system. This means that taxpayers not satisfying the threshold limit cannot adopt CTC invoicing.
Before the initial introduction, the e-invoicing plan was announced by the Indian authorities as early as 2018. Afterwards, the evolvement of the plan has been as follows:
1 January 2020: Voluntary period of e-invoicing for businesses with a turnover of Rs.500 Crore or more
1 February 2020: Voluntary period of e-invoicing for businesses with a turnover of Rs.100 Crore or more
1 October 2020: Beginning of the mandatory e-invoicing period for businesses with a turnover of Rs.500 Crore or more (six months later than previously intended). For the first 30 days, there was a grace period during which invoices could be reported after they had been issued.
1 January 2021: Beginning of the mandatory e-invoicing period for businesses with a turnover of Rs.100 Crore or more.
1 April 2021: Threshold for mandatory e-invoicing lowered to taxpayers with turnover between Rs. 100 Crore to Rs. 50 Crore.
1 April 2022: Threshold lowered from Rs. 50 Crore to Rs. 20 Crore. Taxpayers above Rs. 20 Crore must implement e-invoicing.
1 October 2022: Threshold will be lowered from Rs. 20 Crore to Rs. 10 Crore. Taxpayers above Rs. 10 Crore must implement e-invoicing.
Some changes concerning the e-invoicing workflow are expected. Currently, there is a single platform (IRP) for the clearance process but multiple IRPs will be introduced soon. The Indian Authorities have already approved new IRPs, demonstrating that the authorities wish to have an interoperable e-invoicing market and are moving ahead with their plans to realise their goals.
Additionally, B2C invoices are not currently covered by the IRP clearance, yet the authorities have announced their intention to include those in scope of their CTC system.
India is a challenging jurisdiction for many taxpayers; businesses must have smart digitization and maintenance strategies to stay compliant. The benefits of digitization can be realised through a global strategy that businesses might put in place.
Since 1 January 2019 foreign electronic service providers must issue cloud invoices, a type of e-invoice, for sales of electronic services to individual buyers in Taiwan. Alongside this, Taiwan’s local tax authorities have been introducing incentives for domestic taxpayers to implement e-invoicing despite this not being a mandatory requirement.
Before diving into the details of the e-invoicing system in Taiwan, we’ll discuss the Government Uniform Invoice (GUI), as the e-invoicing system is based on Government Uniform Invoices.
The government uniform invoice is a standard VAT invoice governed and pre-numbered by the tax authorities. All business entities must issue GUIs for all sales of goods and services subject to VAT, except for any legal exemptions.
Taxpayers can issue GUIs once their business registration has been approved by the local competent tax authority in Taiwan. Taxpayers can issue different types of GUIs, including paper-based GUIs and Electronic Government Uniform Invoices (eGUIs) as well. eGUIs are a type of GUI that are issued, transmitted, or obtained via the internet or other electronic means. As previously mentioned, issuing an eGUI is mandatory for foreign electronic service providers who sell electronic services to individuals in Taiwan as of 1 January 2019. However, issuing eGUIs is optional for the broader economy, including domestic taxpayers in Taiwan.
As part of the eGUI issuance process, taxpayers are required to use the numbers provided by the tax authorities during the business registration process. An eGUI must comply with MIG 3.2.1 based on an XML format provided by the tax authority. Following the issuance of an electronic uniform invoice, the invoice information must be uploaded to the tax authority platform within 48 hours for B2C transactions and seven days for B2B transactions.
Foreign business entities within the scope of requirements or any entity that opts to issue eGUIs can appoint a third-party service provider called Value Adding Center to issue eGUIs. An alternative is implementing a solution based on the Turnkey transmission software provided by the Ministry of Finance.
Electronic invoicing has been encouraged by Taiwanese authorities for many years. As a result, more and more businesses have started to issue eGUIs. Also, the requirement to issue cloud invoices for foreign electronic service providers has played an important role in the widespread adoption of e-invoicing throughout the country. While it’s clear that Taiwan has come a long way in terms of the digitalization of e-invoicing processes, paper-based invoices can still be issued according to Taiwanese regulations. We’ll monitor developments in the future to see whether the mandatory implementation of e-invoicing will be extended to the broader economy in Taiwan.
Data is one of the most valuable assets of companies and individuals. Data gathered, cleaned and analysed well enables businesses to realise their utmost capabilities. With the digitization trend, error-prone paper forms, ledgers and books are replaced by electronic versions. This development gave companies more control over their data and liquidated data for further analysis.
This is also true for governments. Since tax income is one of the most significant revenue sources for countries and transactional data is the basis of tax income calculation, transactional data analytics is also essential for governments.
Receiving data in electronic form enables tax authorities to estimate their tax income and income sources better and eventually collect taxes more efficiently. This process has led many global tax authorities to require taxpayers to transmit relevant tax data electronically. Furthermore, the reliability of real-time data has shown to be so appealing that taxpayers are required to transmit data in real-time to the tax authority in many countries.
The real-time or near-real-time tax-relevant data transmission requirement is a new trend often referred to as Continuous Transaction Controls (CTC). CTCs require each transaction to be transmitted to the tax authorities to enable immediate and continuous control. CTCs are becoming more and more common around the world. The initial purpose of the CTCs when it was first launched in Latin America, the origination point, was to reduce the VAT gap. By looking at countries which have adopted CTCs, it’s fair to say that CTCs have already achieved this goal. However, tax authorities subsequently noticed that the benefits of CTCs are not limited to closing the VAT gap.
The vast amount of data collected through CTCs presents immense opportunities for tax authorities. Tax authorities can achieve unprecedented levels of business transaction transparency. Tax authorities T can calculate taxpayers’ compliance risk, and can plan audits based on these risk calculations. Furthermore, data can be used to drive fiscal and economic policy and shared with other government bodies. For instance, during an economic crisis, it’s possible to determine the business sectors most affected through the sales data reported by taxpayers. Those effected can be granted support (through tax exemptions, reduced rates etc.). The OECD Forum on Tax Administration’s chart compares different tax jurisdictions’ data management and analytics abilities and can be used to understand different countries’ data analytics technology.
Granular data collection and transparency of source data create challenges for businesses as there is little room for mistakes, shortcuts or later error correction. Businesses will need to ensure much more granular tax determination decision-making earlier in their processes and their trading partners’ processes.
Furthermore, ensuring compliance where CTCs are implemented can be challenging, especially for international companies, who have historically viewed taxes as something to be addressed by local accountants. Viewing tax as primarily a local concern by adopting local solutions that combine business and compliance functionality for each jurisdiction will be difficult to reconcile with a business’ broader digital and finance transformation and alignment, which is often global.
To step up their game, businesses should focus on data gathering and having a central data repository to have the “big picture” rather than acquiring local solutions to “save the day”. Real-time data transmission also requires clean data to maintain. The global digital transformation strategy must be in place to meet these requirements as well as a scalable technology to manage future tax demands.
Starting with the introduction of a multiple tax rate system in 2019, Japan is in the middle of a multi-year process of upgrading its consumption tax system. Through this significant change, the Japanese government seeks to solve a tax leakage problem that has existed for years.
The recent series of tax reforms in Japan started with the introduction of its multiple tax rate system on 1 October 2019. Following this, changes in the country’s indirect tax, the Japanese Consumption Tax (JCT), started to take place. To counter systemic problems caused by the current ledger system structure, anew system – the Qualified Invoice System –will be introduced from 1 October 2023. The key difference from the current system is that a Qualified Invoice must include a breakdown of applicable tax rates for that given transaction.
Not long after these changes were announced, a new organisation, the E-Invoice Promotion Association (EIPA), was established in July 2020. It aims to promote digitization of overall commercial transactions. Leveraging the opportunity presented by the new Qualified Invoice System, the EIPA began to work on developing a standard specification for electronic invoices.
Since January 2021, the EIPA – with support from the Japanese government – has been working with the OpenPEPPOL team to develop a Japanese specification that meets the country’s regulatory framework and business demands. In September 2021, Japan acquired PEPPOL Authority status and aims to allow businesses to issue and receive electronic invoices through PEPPOL in the Autumn of 2022.
Introduced in January 1989, it’s the indirect tax charged on the consumption of goods and services in Japan. There are national and regional levies, and a reduced rate of Consumption Tax in Japan.
Japan’s Consumption Tax is the equivalent of VAT which is charged across the European Union.
Consumption Tax in Japan is levied when a business transfers goods, provides services or imports goods into Japan.
A refund of Consumption Tax in Japan isn’t possible for businesses without taxable sales in the country.
As Japan implements its Consumption Tax System updates, requirements for Japanese taxpayers will change. Need help ensuring your business stays compliant with all future Japanese Consumption Tax system updates?
Our experts continually monitor, interpret and codify regulatory changes from around the world into our software, reducing the compliance burden on your tax and IT teams.
1 July begins the second half of 2022, and in line with that milestone, changes have started to be implemented in the CTC sphere. In this blog, we highlight vital developments that have taken place in and outside Europe that may influence the continuous transaction controls (CTC) landscape globally.
The Philippines has officially implemented its mandatory continuous transaction controls (CTC system, which consists of the near-real-time transmission of electronically issued invoices and receipts. On 1 July 2022, the Philippines tax authority launched the Electronic Receipt, Invoice and Sales Reporting System (EIS) pilot program.
This initiative was first introduced in 2018 by the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act, known as TRAIN law. 100 selected pilot taxpayers are now obliged to issue and transmit e-invoices/receipts to the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) through the EIS platform. (Philippines Advances Towards Mandatory CTC Reporting | Sovos)
Romania has been taking steps toward implementing its continuous transaction controls (CTC system since 2021. As of 1 July 2022, Romanian taxpayers are required to use the CTC e-invoicing system e-Factura for the supply of high-fiscal risk products in B2B transactions and all B2G transactions. Suppliers must transmit structured invoices issued in XML format to the E-Factura system. Subsequently, the seal will be applied by the Ministry of Finance as proof of clearance. Such invoice will be legally valid under the Romanian regulation. (Romania: Questions Remain as Deadline Looms | Sovos)
Alongside the 1 July 2022 go live for the CTC e-invoicing mandate, the e-transport system has been introduced to monitor high-fiscal-risk goods transported domestically. Taxpayers must issue an e-transport document before certain goods are transported. Moreover, taxpayers must send files to the tax authorities in XML format. Based on Act No. 106 issued by the Romanian government on 30 June 2022 and the change of Articles 13 and 14 of GEO, the fines for non-compliance with the e-transport requirements will not be effective until 1 October 2022. Also, starting from 1 July 2022, SAFT began to apply to large taxpayers as the penalty grace period has ended.
On the list of countries expanding their e-invoicing requirements is also Vietnam, where the issuance of e-invoices became mandatory for all taxable persons operating in Vietnam as of 1 July 2022. Previously, the expected deadline was 1 November 2020, but the tax authority extended it due to the difficulties encountered by local companies to implement on time a compliant e-invoice solution.
Moreover, enterprises, economic organisations, other organisations, business households and individuals must register with the local tax administration to use e-invoices according to the rules established in Decree 123. (Vietnam: E-invoicing Roll-Out in July 2022 | Sovos).
Mandatory B2G invoicing has been postponed for small, medium, and microenterprises with the enactment of Law Decree 42-A/2022. The initial date was 1 July 2022. Now, the B2G e-invoicing is going to be mandatory from 1 January 2023. The reason for this change is that, after extending the deadline for acceptance of electronic invoices in PDF until 31 December 2022, the Portuguese government considered it important to also extend the deadline for receiving and processing B2G electronic invoices for micro, small and medium-sized companies until 31 December 2022 (Portugal: Mandatory B2G invoicing for SME’s postponed again | Sovos)
In Turkey, the tax authority expanded the scope of taxpayers required to use e-fatura, e-arsiv and e-waybill applications. This expansion was done by either adding new sector-based mandates or decreasing the annual revenue threshold. The new requirements became applicable recently, and the taxpayers in the scope of the changes started using e-documents as of 1 July 2022. (Turkey Expands Scope of E-Documents (sovos.com)
In South Korea, e-invoicing has been mandatory for all corporate businesses since 2011. An issued e-tax invoice must be transmitted to the National Tax Service (NTS) within one day of the invoice being issued. The current change concerns the threshold limit for individual businesses, which from 1 July 2022 has been lowered to KRW 200,000,000.
Italy has also entered another phase of implementing its CTC requirements. Starting with cross-border invoices, the Esterometro (the report of cross-border invoices) has been replaced with the transmission of cross-border invoice data to the SDI in a FatturaPA format from 1 July 2022. Additionally, the recently published Decree n.73 established a threshold for the cross-border invoice reporting mandate. Taxpayers are only required to report transactions that exceed the amount of EUR 5,000 for every single operation. This applies, more specifically, to purchases of goods and services not territorially relevant for VAT purposes in Italy, under Articles 7 to 7-octies of Presidential Decree 633/1972.
Moreover, e-invoicing through the SDI became mandatory from 1 July 2022 for taxpayers applying the flat-rate VAT regime (regime forfettario), as well as amateur sports associations and third sector entities with revenue up to EUR 65,000. Lastly, e-invoicing became mandatory between Italy and San Marino from 1 July 2022. The system for e-invoice exchange between Italy and SM will leverage the SDI as the access point for Italian taxpayers and a new, comparable hub for companies in San Marino.
Many countries around the world are either introducing or expanding their existing CTC Regimes with the active changes taking place globally. Sovos continues to monitor which countries are next on the list to build its local CTC regimes and comply with the international standards.