E-invoicing was introduced in Peru in 2010, following the continuous transaction controls (CTC) trend in Latin American countries for a more efficient collection of consumption taxes. Since then, the government has rolled out measures to encompass a significant number of taxpayers under the country’s mandatory e-invoicing regime and advance new technical and institutional structures within its System of Electronic Emissions (SEE – Sistema de Emisión Electrónica).
June 2022 marked the final deadline for including the last group of taxpayers in the country’s e-invoicing mandate. However, the government continues to expand its system, with the latest update proposed by a draft resolution introducing important changes to the Peruvian e-transport document, the Guía de Remisión electronica – GRE.
The Peruvian tax authority (SUNAT) published on 2 June 2022 a draft resolution introducing changes to the GRE, the electronic transport document that must be issued in connection to invoices (comprobantes de pagos) for the control of goods under transportation. The GRE is only vital while the goods are in transit but is a document commonly kept by companies to maintain internal controls of transported goods.
The new draft resolution aims to regulate the issuance of the e-transport document further, introducing several changes, mainly to optimise the control of goods and eliminate the use of paper.
Among the many changes introduced by the draft, the main are:
Taxpayers must be ready to issue GREs remitente and transportista exclusively through their own systems using a software provider (PSE – proveedores de servicios electrónicos) or the SUNAT Portal. This requirement may represent quite the impact on taxpayers that regularly issue a large volume of GREs through the electronic services operator’s channel, the SEE-OSE (Operador de Servicios Electrónicos).
The most impactful change, however, is that taxpayers will only be able to use the GRE as a support document for the transport of goods. Under current legislation, besides the GRE, the factura guía and the liquidacion de compras, which are regular invoices with additional transport information, can also be used to support transporting goods. Issuance of the factura guía is a common practice since it entails the generation of one single document that serves both the sales transaction and transportation. However, the draft resolution only allows the use of the GRE for this purpose.
The introduction of the QR code is the government’s approach to a modern and efficient control method. The bidimensional code is generated by SUNAT once the CDR (constancia de recepción) acquires accepted status and may be presented in either digital or printed format.
Although taxpayers may still support transportation by providing their registration number (RUC), the series and the GRE number, it is expected that the QR code will become the principal method to support transit, and the RUC will only be used as a contingency method.
A new type of e-transport document has also been introduced. The guía de remisión por evento may only be issued through the SUNAT Portal and is used to complement a previously issued GRE in the case of unforeseeable events not attributable to the issuer. In these cases, current regulation supports the transfer with the same document. The draft resolution, however, requires that the GRE por evento is issued before restarting the transportation of goods.
Another change that taxpayers must be aware of, as it might give rise to complex scenarios, is the creation of a new catalogue of measure units applicable only to GREs, found in Annex III. The already existent measure unit catalogues for all other invoices will not apply to the GRE, which is bound to cause a lack of uniformity since the same concept would use two different catalogues.
The draft resolution sets 13 July 2022 as its date of entry into force when taxpayers already in the scope of the GRE may start to issue through the appropriate channels and voluntarily start using the QR code as the support for transportation.
However, until 30 September 2022, taxpayers may exceptionally issue GREs remitente through the SEE-OSE, considering the conditions and requirements in place before the publication of the resolution. The draft also establishes a list of certain taxpayers (issuers and transporters) who will become obliged to issue the GRE and the corresponding dates, in Annex X, according to taxpayer types and the goods in transport, starting 1 January 2023.
As this is a draft resolution, the changes only become definite with the official publication of the final version of the resolution. However, as 13 July 2022 approaches, the resolution is expected to be published in the following weeks. Therefore, taxpayers who are already under the obligation to issue GREs must be ready to comply with the new mandates within a month.
SUNAT accepts comments to the draft resolution, which can be sent via email until 16 June 2022, to the following address: RPATRICI@sunat.gob.pe.
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In line with the obligations set by the European Directive 2014/55 on electronic invoicing in public procurement, Belgium introduced a mandate for public entities to receive and process electronic invoices in 2019.
For Brussels, Flanders, and Wallonia the initiative went beyond the bare minimum of the EU Directive requirements and introduced obligations to also issue e-invoices for suppliers to public sector entities in these regions.
With recent legal changes, Belgium is now preparing to extend the e-invoicing obligation to even more businesses by introducing mandatory e-invoicing in the B2B sector.
On 31 March 2022, the Belgian Official Gazette published the Royal Decree of 9 March 2022, which intends to expand the obligation to issue electronic invoices to all suppliers of public institutions in the context of public contracts and concession contracts.
As previously mentioned, such obligation was already present in multiple regions including Brussels, Flanders, and Wallonia, however, now the mandate covers suppliers of public bodies in all regions. The dates concerning issuing electronic invoices in the public contracts, based on their value are:
Only public contracts and concessions, which estimated value is less or equal to €3,000 excluding VAT are exempt.
As reported previously, Belgian authorities have indicated the ambition to move beyond B2G e-invoicing. On 11 May 2022, the Belgium Chamber of Representatives published a draft law amending the law of 2 August 2002 on combating late payment in commercial transactions, as last amended by the law of 28 May 2019, with the aim to implement electronic invoicing between private companies (B2B).
The rationale behind the proposal is the need to enable companies to invest in electronic invoicing, after already supporting the digitalization of invoicing in the B2G sector. The benefits that will follow are a much faster invoicing process, which is more secure and minimises the risk of errors and missing data.
Moreover, the chances of fraud will decrease while privacy protection increases, without the need for human intervention in the invoicing process.
Lastly, the environmental aspect concerning less paper consumption is highlighted. In terms of financial gain, as calculated by the Administrative Simplification Service (DAV), full digitalization of invoices in Belgium could reduce the administrative burden by €3.37 billion.
Based on the draft law, companies (with the exception of micro-enterprises) will be obliged to send their invoices in structured electronic form (in line with the European standard for electronic invoicing EN 16931-1:2017 and CEN/TS 16931-2:2017) as well as receive and process invoices electronically.
Nothing in the draft law describes the involvement of a centralised clearance platform, or the reporting of e-invoice data to the tax authorities. At this time, there is therefore no formal indication that the proposed mandate would be designed as a Continuous Transactions Control (CTC) e-invoicing system, however it is possible that the system will evolve to connect with PEPPOL.
The law will come into effect on 1 January 2025 regarding SMEs, thereby ensuring that companies have adequate time to prepare for the transition. If it comes to large enterprises, it is expected that mandatory e-invoicing will be present from January 2024. Originally the date concerning large taxpayers was July 2023, and small taxpayers from 2024, therefore those dates will most likely be postponed.
2014 – e-Faktur Pajak introduced
2016 – e-Faktur Pajak became effective
1 October 2020 – New e-Faktur Pajak version 3.0 released
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In 2019, the Portuguese government enacted Law Decree n. 28/2019, introducing a full reform of the rules concerning the issuance, processing and archiving of invoices, with the main goals of implementing electronic invoicing, simplifying compliance for taxpayers and reducing the VAT gap.
The expanded scope of those obliged to use a billing software certified by the Portuguese Tax Authority, the inclusion of a QR code and a sequential unique number code (ATCUD – código único de documento) and the stricter integrity and authenticity requirements when issuing invoices and other relevant fiscal documents were some of the most impactful mandates introduced by this law.
However, many taxpayers struggled to comply with the new requirements. As such, the tax authority has delayed the launch of different components of the Decree, and some of them remain to be implemented.
In a recent Ministerial Decision from 26 May 2022, the goal line for implementing the stricter integrity and authenticity requirement, this article’s focal point, has been moved yet again, now to 1 January 2023.
The Decree from 2019 established that in order to guarantee the requirements of authenticity and integrity of electronic invoices and other relevant fiscal documents have been met (per article 233 of the EU VAT Directive 2006/112/EC), taxpayers must use a qualified electronic signature, a qualified electronic seal (QES) or an electronic data exchange system (EDI) with security measures per the European Model EDI Agreement. This change is important as it limits the choice of compliance methods generally recognised within the EU to one between only QES and EDI.
To achieve this goal, the Decree determined that taxpayers would only be able to use previously accepted advanced electronic signatures or seals (the lower level of signature security) until 31 December 2020. After that, all invoices would be required to incorporate a qualified signature or seal or be issued through EDI.
The original deadline for implementing the stricter integrity and authenticity requirements has been postponed many times. The first delay was ordained through Despacho n. 437/2020-XXII of 9 November 2020 of the State Secretary for Fiscal Matters (SEAF – Secretário de Estado dos Assuntos Fiscais). According to this, PDF invoices without a QES would be accepted until 31 March 2021 and considered electronic invoices for all fiscal purposes.
Since then, the mandate has been postponed four additional times, with the last one taking place on 26 May 2022, by Despacho n. 49/2022-XXIII of the SEAF. According to this act, PDF invoices with no specific security measures must be recognised as electronic invoices for fiscal effects until 31 December 2022, instead of the previously established date, 30 June 2022.
Therefore, from 1 January 2023, taxpayers covered by Law Decree n. 28/2019 must comply with the requirement to ensure authenticity and integrity either by applying a Qualified Electronic Signature/Seal or by using “EDI by-the-book” (EDI under the European Model EDI Agreement).
Besides the stricter authenticity and integrity requirement, taxpayers must be ready to comply with additional new invoicing mandates underway in Portugal. On 1 July 2022, it will be required to only use structured electronic invoices in CIUS-PT format for B2G transactions. The B2G mandatory e-invoicing is already under implementation through a phased roll-out. It is set to be finalised and become compulsory for small and medium companies and microenterprises on 1 July 2022. Furthermore, the inclusion of the ATCUD code on invoices and other fiscal relevant documents, which has also been previously postponed, is set to become mandatory on 1 January 2023.
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Since becoming the first EU country to make electronic invoicing mandatory through a clearance process in 2019, Italy has kept a steady pace in improving its continuous transaction controls (CTC) system to close the gaps in VAT compliance.
Over recent years, Italy has gradually expanded its system by introducing various mandates. The following changes reflect the government’s efforts to tie up loose ends and assert more far-reaching control mechanisms to achieve an efficient and well-rounded system.
The changes listed below become effective on 1 July 2022, with some already available on a voluntary basis and others allowing a short grace period for adjustment.
The retirement of the tax reporting scheme, Esterometro, will require Italian taxpayers to report all cross-border transactions through the Sistema di Interscambio (SDI). Since the clearance of cross-border invoices is not within the Italian CTC system’s scope, this is a clear step towards centralisation.
Taxpayers may continue to exchange invoices in any agreed way, including the FatturaPA format. The reporting, however, must be done through the SDI using the FatturaPA format. This has been optional since January 2022.
Italy has recently expanded the scope of its e-invoicing mandate bringing in new groups of taxpayers:
A short grace period has been established from 1 July 2022 until 30 September 2022. During this period these taxpayers may issue e-invoices within the following month from when they carried out the transaction without any penalties being applied.
The new mandate also states that microenterprises with revenues or fees up to €25,000 per year will be required to issue and clear e-invoices with the SDI, but this only starts in January 2024.
Following the Italian CTC mandate, Italy and San Marino began negotiations to accommodate invoice exchange between the two countries through the more modern clearance-based system, which requires taxpayers to issue and clear e-invoices using the FatturaPA format. This was established by creating a “four-corner” model with the Italian SDI as the access point for Italian taxpayers and the HUB-SM platform as the SDI counterpart on San Marino’s side.
The mandate covers the sale of goods shipped to San Marino for taxpayers who are residents, established or identified in Italy. For sales of goods to Italy, an e-invoice must be issued by the economic operators with identification attributed to them by the Republic of San Marino. A significant effect of this mandate is that the reporting obligations through Esterometro will come to an end.
The voluntary transition phase started in October 2021.
The start of the second semester of 2022 will bring significant changes, and taxpayers have limited time to conform as July approaches. Understanding how these new requirements can affect your company will ensure compliance and avoid unnecessary mistakes.
Speak to our team if you have any questions about the latest e-invoicing requirements in Italy. Sovos has more than a decade of experience keeping clients up to date with e-invoicing mandates all over the world.
Saudi Arabia´s e-invoicing system is being rolled out in two phases; the second phase’s requirements differ from the first phase. The first phase started as of 4 December 2021 for all resident taxable persons. The second phase will go live on 1 January 2023, and the impacted taxpayer group has not yet been announced. However, the Zakat, Tax and Customs Authority (ZATCA) has made considerable progress in kicking off phase 2.
Phase 2 will introduce a Continuous Transaction Controls (CTC) regime in which e-invoices, electronic credit and debit notes will be transmitted to the ZATCA platform in real-time. A clearance regime is prescribed for B2B invoices, while B2C invoices must be reported to the tax authority platform within 24 hours of issuance. Therefore, ZATCA was expected to introduce its e-invoicing platform well in advance of the launch of phase 2.
As expected, the ZATCA recently announced the launch of an E-Invoicing Developer Portal (Sandbox). Users will use the Sandbox to simulate the integration with ZATCA’s platform and can access details on the APIs and other requirements through this platform upon registration.
ZATCA has proposed specific changes to e-invoicing rules. The proposed changes are under public consultation and interested parties may submit their feedback until 10 June 2022.
The changes aim to clarify some requirements (e.g. Cryptographic Stamp, hash, counter etc.) rather than introducing new ones.
The last clarifying changes to the e-invoicing rules are underway, and the developer portal has been launched. We’re now expecting ZATCA’s announcement of the taxpayer groups in the scope of the mandate and expect it to happen at least six months before the go-live date. As the ZATCA plans to roll out phase 2, there will be different timelines for different taxpayer groups. We expect this information within the coming months.
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Romania is introducing a mandatory e-transport system from 1 July 2022 to monitor the transport of certain goods in the national territory, an initiative that will operate in parallel with the newly launched continuous transaction controls (CTCs) system for e-invoicing. This means that in a little over a month’s time, the issuance of an e-transport document will be mandatory for transportation of certain goods within Romania. In this blog, you will find answers to frequently asked questions related to this new system.
The Romanian e-transport system monitors the transport of goods on the national territory categorised as high risk from a fiscal perspective.
This includes the following:
In addition to the transportation type, the categories of road vehicles in scope were recently published in a draft order by the National Agency for Fiscal Administration (ANAF) as follows:
The transportation of high fiscal risk goods will not be declared in Romania’s e-transport system if the transportation doesn’t fall within the scope described above.
ANAF had already established a list of high fiscal risk products and used the same criteria to determine the scope of the e-invoicing system (E-Factura). Although that list partially overlaps with the list for the e-transport system, there are differences.
The product categories of high fiscal risk products for the e-transport system are as follows:
If the transportation includes both goods with high fiscal risk and other goods that aren’t in the category of high fiscal risk, the whole transportation must be declared in the Romanian e-transport system.
It will be operational through the Virtual Private Space (SPV), which is the tax authority portal used for tax purposes, including the Romanian e-invoicing system. The system can either be used through API or through a free application provided by the Ministry of Finance.
According to the regulation, taxpayers will declare the transportation by transmitting an XML file in the e-transport system a maximum of three calendar days before the start of the transport, in advance of the movement of goods from one location to another. Following the transmission, the system will perform some checks (structure, syntax, and semantics), and the Ministry of Finance will apply its signature confirming receipt of the declaration.
The system will generate a unique code (ITU code) if the XML file complies with the requirements and make it available to the taxpayer in a zip archive file with the signature of the Ministry of Finance. This code must accompany the goods in physical or electronic format with the transport document to enable the competent authorities to verify the declaration and the goods while enroute.
The ITU code is valid for five calendar days, starting with the date declared when the transport begins. It’s prohibited to use the ITU code once it has expired.
The declaration will include the following:
Noncompliance with the rules relating to the e-transport system will result in a fine reaching Leu 50,000 (approx. €10,000) for individuals and Leu 100,000 (approx. €20,000) for legal persons. In addition, the value of undeclared goods will be confiscated.
What happens next?
Most of the regulations have been finalised although the approval process of the recently published draft order, technical documentation, APIs, and the e-transport system website are not yet available to taxpayers. As the system is currently due to become mandatory on 1 July 2022, businesses in Romania need to either prepare for last-minute implementation once the outstanding documentation is published or expect a postponement.
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Thailand’s current e-invoicing legal framework has been in effect since 2012 and follows a post-audit approach.
The Thai Revenue Department and Electronic Transactions Development Agency (ETDA) are working together to improve and further develop the e-tax invoicing system. As a result, new regulations on e-tax invoicing and receipts are expected in the future.
From 2017, the Thai Revenue Department issued regulations on electronic tax invoices and receipts. Subject to approval, taxpayers can prepare, deliver and keep their e-tax invoices and receipts in electronic format.
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The global trend in the e-invoicing sphere for the past decade has shown that legislators and local tax authorities worldwide are rethinking the invoice creation process. By introducing technologically sophisticated continuous transaction control (CTC) platforms tax authorities get immediate and detailed control over VAT, which has proven a very efficient way to reduce the VAT gap.
However, many common law countries, that don’t have a VAT system, including the United States, Australia and New Zealand, haven’t followed the same path. They have stood out in international comparisons by providing little regulation in the field of e-invoicing. The reason why there is no need to have control over the invoices is the lack of a VAT tax regime. Recent developments, however, indicate that also common law countries try to spur e-invoicing, driven by the business process efficiencies rather than the need for tax control. Accordingly, the upcoming developments will be addressed in this blog, focusing on the Unites States e-invoicing pilot program and the Australian and New Zealand initiatives to promote e-invoicing.
E-invoicing has been permitted for a very long time in the United States but is still not widespread business practice. According to some sources, e-invoicing currently only amounts to 25% of all invoices exchanged in the country. With the introduction of the Business Payments Coalition (BPC) e-invoicing pilot program in cooperation with the Federal Reserve, this may be about to change.
The BPC’s e-Invoice Exchange Market Pilot aims to promote faster B2B communication and provide an opportunity for all kinds of businesses to exchange e-invoices in the US.
The pilot program is a standardised e-invoicing network across which structured e-invoices can be exchanged between counterparties using various interoperable invoicing systems to connect and exchange documents. It’s intended to drive efficiency and productivity while reducing data errors. A federated registry services model enables authorised administrators or registrars to register and onboard participants into the e-invoice exchange framework.
The e-invoice exchange framework operates similarly to the email ecosystem. Users can sign up with an email provider to send and receive emails. The provider serves as an access point to email exchanges for their users and delivers emails between them over the internet. It allows multiple registrars to register participants within the e-invoice exchange framework. This is reminiscent of the globally established PEPPOL model, which standardizes the structure of an invoice as well as provides a framework for interoperability.
The US is following the European e-invoicing model based on open interoperability functionality. It enables parties using various invoicing systems to connect and exchange documents through the e-invoicing network easily. The digitization process in the e-invoicing sphere will enable large and small organisations in the US to save resources, promote sustainability and provide business efficiency.
Similarly, to the US, the move towards e-invoicing in Australia and New Zealand is not primarily driven by tax issues but process efficiency. Neither country has any plans concerning a traditional B2B e-invoicing mandate. However, the New Zealand and Australian governments have committed to a joint approach to e-invoicing, and the first steps are ensuring that all government entities can receive e-invoices.
In Australia, all commonwealth government agencies must be able to receive PEPPOL e-invoices from 1 July 2022. Moreover, the government also seeks to boost e-invoicing in the B2B space without the traditional mandate for businesses to invoice electronically. Instead, the proposal is to implement what is referred to as Business e-Invoicing Right (BER).
Under the government’s proposal, businesses would have the right to request that their trading parties send an e-invoice over the PEPPOL network instead of traditional paper invoices. Businesses need to set up their systems to be able to receive PEPPOL e-invoices. Once a business has this capability, it would be able to exercise its ‘right’ and request other companies to send them PEPPOL e-invoices.
This reform is expected to be introduced in July 2023, by which businesses will be able to request to receive PEPPOL e-invoices only from large businesses, followed by a staged roll-out to eventually cover all businesses by 1 July 2025.
Following the Australian e-invoicing reform from July 2022 for the B2G sector, the New Zealand Government is encouraging businesses and government agencies to adopt e-invoicing. One step in this direction is the possibility for all central government agencies to be able to receive e-invoices based on PEPPOL BIS Billing 3.0 since 31 March 2022.
Outside of these B2G requirements, there are currently no published plans to move the full economy to mandatory e-invoicing.
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The Italian government has taken important steps to broaden the scope of its e-invoicing mandate, more specifically by widening the scope of taxpayers subject to electronic invoice issuance and clearance obligations, starting 1 July 2022.
On 13 April 2022, the draft Law-Decree, known as the second part of the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (Decreto Legge PNRR 2 – Piano Nazionale di Ripresa e Resilienza), was approved by the Italian Council of Ministers (Consiglio dei ministri).
The Italian government-approved National Recovery Plan is part of the European Union’s Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), an instrument created to assist Member States financially in recovering from the economic and social challenges raised by the Covid-19 pandemic.
The expansion of Italy’s e-invoicing mandate is one element of the government’s anti-tax evasion package and addresses, in particular, the advancement of digital transformation, one of the six pillars of the RRF.
The draft Law-Decree PNRR 2 expands the obligation to issue and clear electronic invoices through the Italian clearance platform Sistema di Intercambio (SDI) to certain VAT taxpayers exempt from the mandate thus far. This means that from 1 July 2022, the following additional taxpayers are obliged to comply with the Italian e-invoicing mandate:
The regime forfettario is available to taxpayers who fulfil specific requirements, allowing them to adopt a reduced flat-rate VAT regime of 15%, decreased to 5% for new businesses during the first five years. These taxpayers have, up until now, been exempt from the obligation to issue e-invoices and clear them through the SDI, according to Legislative Decree 127 of 5 August 2015.
Additionally, amateur sports associations and third sector entities with revenue up to EUR 65,000 who have also been exempt from the e-invoicing mandate, are included as new subjects. Starting 1 July 2022, e-invoicing will also become mandatory for them.
The mandate still excludes microenterprises with revenues or fees up to EUR 25,000 per year, which instead will be required to issue and clear e-invoices with the SDI starting in 2024.
The draft decree also established a short transitional grace period from 1 July 2022 until 30 September 2022. During this time taxpayers subject to the new mandate are allowed to issue e-invoices within the following month when the transaction was carried out, without being subject to any penalties. This gives the new subjects time to conform to the general rule stating electronic invoices must be issued within 12 days from the transaction date.
The definitive text of the decree has not yet been published in the Italian Official Gazette; only once this final step is taken will the decree formally become law, and the extended scope become binding. The start of the second semester of this year brings additional significant changes in Italy concerning the mandatory reporting of cross-border invoices through FatturaPA, also set to begin on 1 July 2022.
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The Philippines continues in constant advance towards implementing its continuous transaction controls (CTC) system, which consists of near real-time reporting of electronically issued invoices and receipts. On 4 April, testing began in the Electronic Invoicing System (EIS), the government’s platform, with six companies selected as pilots for this project.
The initial move toward a CTC system in the Philippines started in 2018 with the introduction of the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act, known as TRAIN law, which has the primary objective of simplifying the country’s tax system by making it more progressive, fair, and efficient. The project for implementing a mandatory nationwide electronic invoicing and reporting system has been developed in close collaboration with the South Korean government, considered a successful model with its comprehensive and seasoned CTC system.
Electronic invoicing and reporting are among many components set forth by the TRAIN law as part of the country’s DX Vision 2030 Digital Transformation Program. With this, the Philippines is making headway toward modernising its tax system.
The Philippines CTC system requires the issuance of invoices (B2B) and receipts (B2C) in electronic form and their near real-time reporting to the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR), the national tax authority. The EIS offers different possibilities in terms of submission, meaning that transmission can be done in real-time or near real-time. Documents that must be electronically issued and reported include sales invoices, receipts, and credit/debit notes.
According to the Philippines Tax Code, the following taxpayers are covered by the upcoming mandate:
However, taxpayers not covered by the obligation may opt to enroll with the EIS for e-invoice/e-receipt reporting purposes
The Philippines introduced somewhat unusual requirements in this period of digitization, when it comes to e-invoice archiving. The preservation period is ten years and consists of a system in which taxpayers are obliged to retain hard copies for the first five years. After this first period, hard copies are no longer required, and exclusive storage of electronic copies in an e-archive is permitted for the remaining five years.
With tests officially underway, the next phase should begin on 1 July 2022, with the go-live for 100 pilot taxpayers selected by the government, including the six initial ones. After that, the government plans to advance a phased roll-out in 2023 for all taxpayers under the system’s scope. Meanwhile, taxpayers can take advantage of this interim period to conform with the Philippines CTC reporting requirements.
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Luxembourg is one of many European countries to implement SAF-T and e-invoicing to provide greater visibility into a wide range of business, accounting and tax data.
Luxembourg introduced SAF-T requirements in 2011. In 2019 the country introduced an e-invoicing legislation.
Luxembourg is part of the EU single market economy and falls under the EU VAT regime. The EU issues VAT Directives laying out the principles of how the VAT regime should be adopted by Member States. These Directives take precedent over any local legislation.
VAT law within the country is administered by the Administration de l’Enregistrement et des Domaines and is contained within the General Tax Code.
Just like in any other EU Member State, e-invoicing is permitted in Luxembourg, subject to the buyer accepting the exchange of electronic invoices.
Businesses must ensure integrity of invoice content and authenticity of origin for their invoices. Integrity and authenticity can be proved using Advanced Electronic Signatures, ‘proper EDI’ with an interchange agreement based on the EC 1994 recommendation, and Business Controls-based Audit Trail.
In May 2019, Luxembourg adopted legislation about e-invoicing in public procurement following the EU Directive 2014/55/EU. The Directive states that e-invoices will continue to be exchanged voluntarily by suppliers to the government and the centralised PEPPOL access point will continue to be used.
Prior authorisation is required before outsourcing to a service provider – written authorisation is recommended.
Invoices stored in electronic form must have evidence of their integrity and authenticity stored electronically as well.
E-invoices may only be stored in EU Member States (or other countries) of which Luxembourg has signed a mutual tax assistance treaty – prior to notification and access.
VAT returns may be filed monthly, quarterly or annually electronically through Luxembourg’s online platform (eCDF) via PDF or XML format. Alternatively, annual filings can be made either in electronic format through the portal or via sending a paper copy of the VAT return to the requisite tax office.
To submit tax returns electronically, taxpayers must ensure the service provider they use is certified within eCDF.
Officially implemented in 2011, Luxembourg’s Standard Audit File for Tax (SAF-T) is locally known as Fichier Audit Informatisé AED (FAIA).
Businesses must, if requested, submit their financial data electronically in a format that is compliant with AED electronic audit file specifications (i.e., in the specified FAIA format). Only resident businesses subject to the Luxembourg Standard Chart of Accounts must file the FAIA.
2011 – Introduction of SAF-T, known as Fichier Audit Informatisé AED (FAIA)
2019 – Adoption of e-invoicing legislation in public procurement with 2014/55/EU Directive
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Transition from voluntary to mandatory e-invoicing expected from 1 April 2023
From 1 January 2022, taxpayers have been able to issue structured invoices (e-invoices) using Poland’s National e-Invoicing System (KSeF) on a voluntary basis, meaning electronic and paper forms are still acceptable in parallel. Introduction of the KSeF system is part of the digital transformation happening in Poland following the establishment of continuous transaction control (CTC) mandates all around Europe, supporting faster and more effective identification of tax fraud.
The KSeF system enables taxpayers to issue and receive invoices electronically. It is one of the most technologically advanced tools in Europe for exchanging information on economic events. Structured invoices issued via the system are prepared in accordance with the invoice template developed by the Ministry of Finance. After issuance, the invoices are sent from the financial and accounting system via an interface (API) to the central database (KSeF). Afterwards they are available in the system and can be downloaded by the recipient.
On 5 August 2021, the Republic of Poland requested authorisation to derogate from Articles 218, 226 and 232 of the VAT Directive to be able to implement an obligation to issue electronic invoices, processed through the National e-Invoicing System (KSeF), for all transactions that require the issuance of an invoice according to Polish VAT legislation.
Subsequently, on 9 February 2022, Poland modified its request, asking for the authorisation to derogate only from Articles 218 and 232 of the VAT Directive and specified that mandatory electronic invoicing would only apply to taxable persons established in the territory of Poland.
Poland considers the introduction of a generalised obligation to issue electronic invoices would bring significant benefits in terms of combating VAT fraud and evasion while simplifying tax collection. Moreover, the implementation of the measure will accelerate the digitalization of the public sector.
As derived from Article 218 of the VAT Directive, Member States are obliged to accept all documents or messages in paper or electronic form as invoices. Poland strived to obtain a derogation from the above-mentioned Article of the VAT Directive so that only documents in electronic form could be considered as invoices by the Polish tax administration.
Additionally, based on Article 232 of the VAT Directive the use of an electronic invoice is subject to acceptance by the recipient. Therefore, the introduction of an electronic invoicing obligation in Poland requires a derogation from this Article, so that the issuer no longer has to obtain the consent of the recipient to send an invoice in a paperless format. Currently, under Article 106n of the Polish VAT law, the use of electronic invoices requires the approval of the invoice recipient, which hinders the possibility to impose mandatory electronic invoicing.
As announced by the European Commission on 30 March 2022, Poland has been granted the derogatory decision both from the Article 218 and Article 232 of Directive 2006/112/EC. The decision will apply from 1 April 2023 until 31 March 2026, after receiving the last approval from the EU Council. The mandatory phase of the mandate is expected to begin on 1 April 2023.
To allow taxpayers to issue and make electronic invoices available using KSeF, the Polish Ministry of Finance will offer several tools free of charge:
On 31 March 2022 the Ministry of Finance announced that the test version of the KSeF Taxpayer application will be made available on 7 April 2022. It will enable management of authorisations, issuing and receiving invoices from the KSeF.
With the published decision of the European Commission Poland has entered into the next implementing stage of mandatory e-invoicing. The next steps will follow after receiving the approval from the EU Council (which is now a formality and should take place within a few weeks). Subsequently, the Ministry of Finance will implement universal electronic invoicing in Poland giving adequate time for the businesses to adapt to new solutions.
Development of Sovos’ CTC solution for Poland is already well-advanced and will shortly be ready for implementation. To get ahead of the inevitable rush to comply with Poland’s CTC mandate, contact us today.
Brazil is, without doubt, one of the most challenging jurisdictions in the world when it comes to tax legislation. The intricate fiscal system that encompasses rules from 27 states and over 5000 municipalities has created a burden on companies, especially for cross-state and cross-municipality transactions.
Furthermore, taxpayers must carefully examine the numerous e-invoicing formats and requirements (and, sometimes, the lack of such). Therefore, hopes for tax reform in Brazil have existed for quite some time.
In recent years, several legislative initiatives towards integrating indirect taxation mandates across the country have not met successful outcomes. Meanwhile, a feasible step into bringing forth such changes may be through the unification of rules on digital compliance with tax obligations, such as VAT e-invoicing and e-reporting.
In late 2021 a draft law proposal (Projeto de Lei Complementar n. 178/2021) was initiated by the private sector. Named the National Statute for the Simplification of Ancillary Fiscal Obligations, it has been welcomed this year by the House of Representatives. Its primary purpose is to introduce a significant reform within digital tax reporting obligations by creating a unified e-invoicing system.
By establishing national fiscal cooperation, the proposal intends to reduce costs with compliance, allow information sharing among tax authorities, and create an incentive for taxpayers’ conformity across all federal, state and municipal levels.
The principal agenda of the draft law proposal is to introduce:
What this means for businesses
The most significant change is the introduction of the NFB-e (Nota Fiscal Brasil Eletronica), a national standard for e-invoicing. It entails the unification of the NF-e (Nota Fiscal Eletronica), NFS-e (Nota Fiscal de Servicos Eletronica) and NF-C (Nota Fiscal do Consumidor Eletronica) in one single document. This will cover Brazil’s VAT-like taxes, in this case, ICMS (VAT on products and certain services) and ISS (services VAT).
In practice, this means that instead of complying with numerous e-invoicing formats and mandates, according to the state and municipality of the transaction, one national digital standard will provide uniform country-wide compliance for e-invoicing. The NFB-e will cover invoicing of goods and services on state and municipal levels for B2G, B2B and B2C transactions.
The reform will drastically reduce the burden on taxpayers and expand the scope of e-invoicing to municipalities where such a mandate hasn’t been adopted yet.
It’s essential to add clearance requirements for e-invoicing in Brazil will be maintained, meaning that businesses will still need to comply with rules for real-time clearance of invoices with the tax authority.
The draft law proposal is still in early discussions and will follow to the Justice and Citizenship Constitutional Commission (CCJC) for approval and possible amendments before voting by Congress. Until then, compliance with e-invoicing rules across Brazil remains at its current challenging status.
The modernisation of tax and tax controls remains a high priority for Slovakia’s tax authority. The Slovakian Ministry of Finance plans to introduce a continuous transaction control (CTC) scheme, with the aim to lower Slovakia’s VAT gap to the EU average and obtain real-time information about underlying business transactions.
The envisaged CTC system, Electronic Invoice Information Systems (IS EFA, Informačný systém elektronickej fakturácie), will become mandatory for B2G transactions from early 2022.
Full details of the upcoming CTC system are not yet available, but the proposed legislation is expected to be published early 2022. The preliminary statements announced by the authorities in February 2021 aim to introduce mandatory real-time invoice reporting for all types of transactions (including B2B and B2C) by 2023.
The incoming CTC mandate will require businesses to report invoice data to the tax authority prior to issuing the invoice to their trading parties. Trading parties must then in turn report receipt of the invoice. Data must be sent either through certified accounting software or the government portal.
The second phase will start at a later date and cover B2B and B2C transactions.
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In the European Union, the VAT rules around supplies of goods, as well as ’traditional’ two-party supplies of services, are well-defined and established. Peer-to-peer services facilitated by a platform, however, do not always fit neatly into the categories set out under the EU VAT Directive (Council Directive 2006/112/EC). There are ambiguities around both the nature of the service provided by the platform operator, and the status, for tax purposes, of the individual service provider (i.e., a driver for a ride-sharing service, or an individual offering their property for rent on an online marketplace). This creates a unique challenge for VAT policymakers.
The EU Commission has recently opened a public consultation on VAT and the platform economy to address these issues. We have previously discussed other initiatives proposed by the Commission including a single EU VAT registration and VAT reporting and e-invoicing. This blog will discuss the underlying challenges policymakers face and the specific proposals set out in the consultation, which could significantly impact digital platform operators and users.
A threshold question for the VAT treatment of digital platforms is whether the platform merely connects individual sellers with individual customers – i.e., acts as an intermediary – or whether it actively provides a separate service to the customer. This question is significant because services rendered to a non-taxable person by an intermediary, under Article 46 of the VAT Directive, are sourced to the location of the underlying transaction.
In contrast, services provided to a non-taxable person under a taxpayer’s name are sourced either to the supplier’s location or, in certain circumstances, to the customer’s location. Whether a particular platform is acting as an intermediary can be very fact-specific and can depend, for example, on the level of control exercised by the platform over pricing or user conduct.
To further muddy the waters, there are potential ambiguities for VAT involving:
A final source of ambiguity is whether an individual service provider qualifies as a taxable person when making only occasional supplies; this could raise the question of whether said supplies would attract VAT.
These ambiguities present an obvious challenge to the consistent VAT treatment of platforms across the Member States.
As part of its public consultation on “VAT in the Digital Age”, the EU Commission has proposed several solutions to the challenges listed above. Of these, three proposals directly address the ambiguous nature of services provided via platforms:
These proposals aim to provide clear guidelines to Member States on how platform services should be categorised, and, therefore, which VAT rules should apply under the Directive. Perhaps the most direct is the “deemed supplier” proposal, which would attach VAT liability to platform operators under defined circumstances.
A “deemed supplier regime” already exists for platforms that facilitate sales of low-value goods in the EU, so it is likely the Commission will seriously consider this option. Notably, the public consultation solicited comments on three different permutations of the deemed supplier regime, differing only in the scope of services covered.
Whichever direction the EU ultimately goes in, it is clear that a significant change is on the horizon for digital platforms. Platform operators and platform users should pay close attention to these ongoing consultations in the coming months.
The electronic invoicing system in Paraguay has been in development since 2017 according to the plan carried out by the Undersecretary of State for Taxation (SET) to modernise and improve tax collection and minimise the incidence of tax fraud.
The introduction of the Integrated National Electronic Invoicing System (Es. Sistema Integrado de Facturación Electrónica Nacional -SIFEN –) meant the introduction of a new e-invoicing regime in the country. The adoption of this new system is currently in its voluntary adhesion phase, which began in 2019, and has allowed entrepreneurs, merchants, and companies to issue e-invoices optionally. However, from July 2022, the use of the system will gradually become mandatory for certain taxable persons.
Taxpayers in Paraguay can use the SIFEN to issue Electronic Tax Documents (Es. Documento Tributario Electrónico – DTE). The DTE is a digital version of the invoice and other traditional documents, which has tax and legal validity. The DTE has become a modern, effective, secure and transparent form to issue and manage e-invoices for distinct types of business operations.
The DTEs are validated upon issuance by the SAT to support the VAT deductions and transactions related to income tax. Among the distinct types of DTE in Paraguay, we find:
The e-invoices issued by the taxable persons that have adhered to the SIFEN are generated in XML format. The authenticity and integrity of each document are guaranteed through the digital signature and the control code that DTEs include. Each document must be sent electronically to the tax administration for its clearance.
The SIFEN is responsible for verifying and validating each document. Once it is established that the DTE meets all the requirements, it becomes a legal e-invoice. The taxable persons issuing the e-invoice then receive the verification results through the web service system.
After the e-invoice is cleared, suppliers can send the DTE to their buyers via email, data messaging or other means.
The Paraguayan Undersecretary of State for Taxation recently published a General Resolution providing administrative measures for the issuance of DTEs. This resolution also established a phased schedule of implementation, in which certain taxable persons will be required to issue e-invoices and other DTEs using the SIFEN.
The implementation schedule consists of ten stages starting on 1 July 2022 with all taxpayers who joined the pilot program to adopt the SIFEN. From January 2023, the mandate will include more taxpayers. However, it is not yet defined which companies will start in that stage. The SET aims to cover all taxpayers carrying out economic activities in the country by October 2024.
Companies in Paraguay must get ready to issue e-invoices under the requirements of the SIFEN. From 1 July 2022, all companies in the country will be able to use this system voluntarily. The list of taxpayers required to comply with the mandate will be available on the SIFEN website and on the SET website (www.set.gov.py). The SET will notify affected taxpayers via the Paraguayan Tax Mailbox known as “Marandu.”
Get in touch with our team of experts today to ensure compliance with the latest Paraguayan e-invoicing regulations.