Governments throughout the world are introducing continuous transaction control (CTC) systems to improve and strengthen VAT collection while combating tax evasion. Romania, with the largest VAT gap in the EU (34.9% in 2019), is one of the countries moving the fastest when it comes to introducing CTCs. In December 2021 the country announced mandatory usage of the RO e-Factura system for high-fiscal risk products in B2B transactions starting from 1 July 2022, and already now they are taking the next step.
RO e-Transport system
The Ministry of Finance recently published a draft Emergency Ordinance (Ordinance) introducing a mandatory e-transport system for monitoring certain goods on the national territory starting from 1 July 2022. The RO e-Transport system will be interconnected with existing IT systems at the level of the Ministry of Finance, the National Agency for Fiscal Administration (ANAF) or the Romanian Customs Authority.
According to the draft Ordinance, the transportation of high-fiscal risk products will be declared in the e-transport system a maximum of three calendar days before the start of the transport, in advance of the movement of goods from one location to another.
The declaration will include the following:
- Data relating to the consignor and the beneficiary
- The name, characteristics, quantities, and value of the goods transported
- Places of loading and unloading
- Details of the means of transport
The system will generate a unique code (ITU code) following the declaration. This code must accompany the goods that are being transported, in physical or electronic format with the transport document. Competent authorities will verify the declaration and the goods on the transport routes.
The first question that comes to mind is what the definition of high-fiscal risk products is. The Romanian Ministry of Finance had already established a list of high-fiscal risk products for mandatory usage of the RO e-Factura system. However, it is still unknown if the high-fiscal risk product list will be the same. The Ministry of Finance will establish a subsequent order defining the high-fiscal risk products in the coming days.
If the transportation includes both goods with high-fiscal risk and other goods that are not in the category of high-fiscal risk, the whole transportation must be declared in the RO e-Transport system.
Which transportations are in scope?
The RO e-Transport system is established to monitor the transportation of high-risk goods on the national territory.
This includes the following:
- Intra-community acquisitions
- Intra-community deliveries
- Imports and exports
- Domestic transportation between different economic operators
- Domestic transportation between two locations belonging to the same economic operator
- Transport of goods that are subject to intra-community transactions in transit through Romania
The carriage of goods intended for diplomatic missions, consular posts, international organisations, the armed forces of foreign NATO Member States or as a result of the execution of contracts, are not in the scope of the RO e-Transport system.
What happens next?
The draft Ordinance is expected to be published in the official gazette in the coming days. Following the publication, the Ministry of Finance will establish subsequent orders to define the categories of road vehicles and the list of high-fiscal risk products for the RO e-Transport system. Moreover, as of 1 July 2022, using the RO e-Transport system will become mandatory for transporting high-fiscal risk products.
Noncompliance with the rules relating to the e-Transport system will result in a fine reaching LEI 50,000 (approx. EUR 10,000) for individuals and LEI 100,000 (approx. EUR 20,000) for legal persons. In addition, the value of undeclared goods will be confiscated.