With the most significant VAT gap in the EU (34.9% in 2019), Romania has been moving towards introducing a continuous transaction control (CTC) regime to improve and strengthen VAT collection while combating tax evasion.
The main features of this new e-invoicing system, e-Factura, have been described in an earlier blog post. Today, we’ll take a closer look at the roll-out for B2B transactions and the definition of high-fiscal risk products, as well as the new e-transport system that was introduced through the Government Emergency Ordinance (GEO) no. 130/2021, published in the Official Gazette on 18 December.
What are high fiscal risk products?
According to GEO no. 120/2021 (the legislative act introducing the legal framework of e-Factura), the supplier and the recipient must both be registered with the e-Factura system. The recently published GEO no. 130/2021 establishes an exception for high fiscal risk products and ensures that taxpayers will use the e-Factura system regardless of whether the recipients are registered.
In line with the GEO no. 130/2021, the National Agency for Fiscal Administration has issued an order to clarify which products are considered high fiscal risk products.
The five product categories are as follows:
- Vegetables, fruits, roots and edible tubers, other edible plants
- Alcoholic beverages
- New constructions
- Mineral products (natural mineral water, sand and gravel)
- Clothing and footwear
High fiscal risk products are defined based on the nature of the products, marketing method, traceability of potential tax evasion and degree of taxation in those sectors. Detailed explanations, as well as product codes, can be found in the Annex of GEO no. 130/2021.
The enforcement timeline of this requirement means that businesses that supply these types of products must be ready to comply with the new Romanian e-Factura system as follows:
- From 1 April to 30 June 2022: It will be voluntary to submit invoices in the Romanian e-Factura system
- From 1 July: It will be mandatory to submit invoices in the Romanian e-Factura system
Looking ahead: introduction of an e-transport system
Another reform that shows the intention of the Romanian authorities to combat tax fraud and evasion is the introduction of an e-transport system.
Taxpayers will be required to declare the movement of goods from one location to another in advance. Once declared, the system will issue a unique number written on the transport documents. Authorities will then verify the declaration on the transport routes.
Moreover, it is stated in the justification letter that the e-transport system will interconnect with the Ministry of Finance’s current systems, Romanian e-invoice, and traffic control, much like similar initiatives in other countries, such as India, Turkey and Brazil.
The introduction of the e-transport system is still pending as the Ministry of Finance has not yet issued the order regarding the application procedure of the system. According to GEO 130/2021, the Ministry of Finance had 30 days to do so after GEO 130/2021 was published in the Official Gazette. However, the deadline expired on the 17 January, and no announcement has been made yet. Therefore, the details of the system are still unknown.